Compression, or helical compression springs are used to resist applied compression forces or to store energy in the push mode. These are very common and are found in the automotive, aerospace, and consumer industries. This type of spring can take many forms – conical, barrel, hourglass, or cylindrical – but the most common is straight cylindrical. Energy storage capacity is greater for the round wire springs than rectangular, but these other shapes have advantages like reduced solid height, buckling, and surging, or to produce nonlinear load-deflection characteristics.
Types of Ends
Compression springs will have a longer life and will sit more squarely when the ends are ground, and as a modern spring manufacturer, our facilities have state-of-the-art equipment which allows this to be done in the most precise way possible. Possible compression spring ends include:
- Plain Ends
- Plain ends ground
- Squared ends – cost less to manufacture than squared ends ground
- Squared ends ground
A bearing surface of at least 270° is required to improve squareness and reduce buckling during operation.
The most prevalent form of a compression spring is a straight cylindrical spring. However, other forms such as conical, barrel, hourglass or cylindrical forms are available with custom spacing between coils.
The main application capability for compression springs is to store energy in the push mode or to resist applied compression forces. Compression springs are used in a variety of industries but are most commonly found in automotive, aerospace and consumer goods.
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Have You Considered These Factors?
- Diameter increases when a spring is compressed. Was this considered when establishing your minimum clearance?
- Long Compression Springs have a tendency to buckle – especially when their lengths are greater than 4 times their spring diameter. Corrections may require larger diametral clearances and lateral support.
- Preferred Spring Indexes range from 4 to 12. Springs with higher indexes may tangle and often require individual packaging. Springs with lower indexes are typically more difficult to form.
- Different stress conditions (such as elastic condition, direct shear load and static loading at elevated temperatures) require different stress correction factors.
- Under Static Conditions ― To increase the load-carrying ability of springs, increase the length of the spring’s required free length and compress the spring to solid.
- Stress Relaxation can be affected by material, spring processing variable, time, temperature and stress.
- In Cyclic Applications, the velocity of end coils is lower than normal. To set the optimum stress level, you need to balance spring cost versus reliability. The basis of your decision will require complete details concerning the spring application’s operating environment, expected life, stress range, the speed of operation, permissible levels of stress relaxation and the frequency of operation.
- Barrel and Hourglass Springs are calculated as two separate conical springs in a series.
- When a Variable Diameter Spring is designed so that adjacent coils rub against one another during deflection, its resistance to resonance phenomena will increase, but it may also decrease the spring’s longevity.
Helical Compression SpringsFound in many applications, helical compression springs have the most common spring configuration, which consists of round wire coiled into a straight cylindrical spring.
- ROUND WIRE: Has the greater capacity to store energy. Can further increase energy storage by nesting.
- SQUARE WIRE: Reduce solid height Increase design’s space efficiency
Spring ShapesHelical compression springs are also available in shapes that offer reductions in solid height, buckling and surging or that produce non-linear load-deflection characteristics. Optional Configurations